www.SkinnyScienceCoffee.com

CLINICAL DATA
REFERENCES/BIBLIOGRAPHY



AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION, COFFEE IMPAIRS BLOOD GLUCOSE, Vol. 87, No. 5, 1254-1261, May 2008. Caffeinated coffee consumption impairs blood glucose homeostasis in response to high and low glycemic index meals in healthy men

Woman’s World magazine, January 29, 2002. Is Coffee Making You Fat?

Johnston KL, Clifford MN, Morgan LM. Coffee acutely modifies gastrointetinal hormone secretion and glucose tolerance in humans: glycemic effects of chlorogenic acid and caffeine. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;78:728–33.

Keijzers GB, de Galan BE, Tack CJ, Smits P. Caffeine can decrease insulin sensitivity in humans. Diabetes Care 2002;25:364–9.

Graham TE, Sathasivam P, Rowland M, Marko N, Greer F, Battram D. Caffeine ingestion elevates plasma insulin response in humans during an oral glucose tolerance test. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 2001;79:559–65.

van Dam RM, Hu FB. Coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review. JAMA 2005;294:97–104.

Graham TE, Hibbert E, Sathasivam P. Metabolic and exercise endurance effects of coffee and caffeine ingestion. J Appl Physiol 1998;85:883–9.

Harland BF. Caffeine and nutrition. Nutrition 2000;16:522–6.

Nawrot P, Jordan S, Eastwood J, Rotstein J, Hugenholtz A, Feeley M. Effects of caffeine on human health. Food Addit Contam 2003;20:1–30.

Pizziol A, Tikhonoff V, Paleari CD, et al. Effects of caffeine on glucose tolerance: a placebo-controlled study. Eur J Clin Nutr 1998;52:846–9.

Petrie HJ, Chown SE, Belfie LM, et al. Caffeine ingestion increases the insulin response to an oral-glucose-tolerance test in obese men before and after weight loss. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80:22–8.

Robinson LE, Savani S, Battram DS, McLaren DH, Sathasivam P, Graham TE. Caffeine ingestion before an oral glucose tolerance test impairs blood glucose management in men with type 2 diabetes. J Nutr 2004;134:2528–33.

Lane JD, Barkauskas CE, Surwit RS, Feinglos MN. Caffeine impairs glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2004;27:2047–8.

Robinson LE, Savani S, Battram DS, McLaren DH, Sathasivam P, Graham TE: Caffeine ingestion before an oral glucose tolerance test impairs blood glucose management in men with type 2 diabetes. J Nutr 134: 2528–2533, 2004

Lane JD, Hwang AL, Feinglos MN, Surwit RS: Caffeine in coffee exaggerates postprandial hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes. Endocr Pract 13: 239–243, 2007

Gross TM, Mastrototaro JJ: Efficacy and reliability of the continuous glucose monitoring system. Diabetes Technol Ther 2: S19–S26, 2000

Crist GH, Xu B, Lanoue KF, Lang CH: Tissue-specific effects of in vivo adenosine receptor blockade on glucose uptake in Zucker rats. FASEB J 12: 1301–1308, 1998

Han DH, Hansen PA, Nolte LA, Holloszy JO: Removal of adenosine decreases the responsiveness of muscle glucose transport to insulin and contractions. Diabetes 47: 1671–1675, 1998

Thong FSL, Graham TE: Caffeine-induced impairment of glucose tolerance is abolished by beta-adrenergic receptor blockade in humans. J Appl Physiol 92: 2347–2352, 2002

Greer F, Hudson R, Ross R, Graham T. Caffeine ingestion decreases glucose disposal during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp in sedentary humans. Diabetes 2001;50:2349–54.

Thong FS, Derave W, Kiens B, et al. Caffeine-induced impairment of insulin action but not insulin signaling in human skeletal muscle is reduced by exercise. Diabetes 2002;51:583–90.

van Dam RM, Feskens EJ. Coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Lancet 2002;360:1477–8.

Salazar-Martinez E, Willett WC, Ascherio A, et al. Coffee consumption and risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Ann Intern Med 2004;140:1–8.

Rosengren A, Dotevall A, Wilhelmsen L, Thelle D, Johansson S. Coffee and incidence of diabetes in Swedish women: a prospective 18-year follow-up study. J Intern Med 2004;255:89–95.

Tuomilehto J, Hu G, Bidel S, Lindstrom J, Jousilahti P. Coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus among middle-aged Finnish men and women. JAMA 2004;291:1213–9.

Carlsson S, Hammar N, Grill V, Kaprio J. Coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in Finnish twins. Int J Epidemiol 2004;33:616–7.

Agardh EE, Carlsson S, Ahlbom A, et al. Coffee consumption, type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance in Swedish men and women. J Intern Med 2004;255:645–52.

Yamaji T, Mizoue T, Tabata S, et al. Coffee consumption and glucose tolerance status in middle-aged Japanese men. Diabetologia 2004;47:2145–51.

van Dam RM, Willett WC, Manson JE, Hu FB. Coffee, caffeine, and risk of type 2 diabetes: a prospective cohort study in younger and middle-aged U.S. women. Diabetes Care 2006;29:398–403.

Pereira MA, Parker ED, Folsom AR. Coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: an 11-year prospective study of 28 812 postmenopausal women. Arch Intern Med 2006;166:1311–6.

Battram DS, Arthur R, Weekes A, Graham TE. The glucose intolerance induced by caffeinated coffee ingestion is less pronounced than that due to alkaloid caffeine in men. J Nutr 2006;136:1276–80.

Lane JD, Hwang AL, Feinglos MN, Surwit RS. Exaggeration of postprandial hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes by administration of caffeine in coffee. Endocr Pract 2007;13:239–43.
Fredholm BB. Astra Award Lecture: Adenosine, adenosine receptors and the actions of caffeine. Pharmacol Toxicol 1995;76:93–101.

Thong FS, Graham TE. Caffeine-induced impairment of glucose tolerance is abolished by beta-adrenergic receptor blockade in humans. J Appl Physiol 2002;92:2347–52.

Avogaro A, Toffolo G, Valerio A, Cobelli C. Epinephrine exerts opposite effects on peripheral glucose disposal and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion: a stable label intravenous glucose tolerance test minimal model study. Diabetes 1996;45:1373–8.

Battram DS, Graham TE, Dela F. Caffeine's impairment of insulin-mediated glucose disposal cannot be solely attributed to adrenaline. J Physiol 200;583:1069-1077.

Spiller MA. The chemical components of coffee. In: Spiller GA, ed. The methylxanthine beverages and foods: chemistry, consumption, and health effects. New York, NY: Alan R. Liss, 1984;91–147.

Gilbert RM. Caffeine consumption. In:Spiller GA, ed. The methylxanthine beverages and foods: chemistry, consumption, and health effects. New York, NY: Alan R. Liss, 1984;185–213.

Farah A, de Paulis T, Moreira DP, Trugo LC, Martin PR. Chlorogenic acids and lactones in regular and water-decaffeinated arabica coffees. J Agric Food Chem 2006;54:374–81.

Shearer J, Farah A, de Paulis T, et al. Quinides of roasted coffee enhance insulin action in conscious rats. J Nutr 2003;133:3529–32.

Shearer J, Sellars E, Farah A, Graham TE, Wasserman DH. Effects of chronic coffee consumption on glucose kinetics in the conscious rat. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 2007;85:823–30.

D'Amicis A, Viani R. The consumption of coffee. In: Garattini S, ed. Caffeine, coffee and health. New York, NY: Raven Press, Ltd, 1993:1–16.

Lundsberg LS. Caffeine consumption. In: Spiller GA, ed. Caffeine. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1998:199–224.

Salazar-Martinez E, Willett WC, Ascherio A, et al. Coffee consumption and risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Ann Intern Med 2004;140:1–8.

Rosengren A, Dotevall A, Wilhelmsen L, Thelle D, Johansson S. Coffee and incidence of diabetes in Swedish women: a prospective 18-year follow-up study. J Intern Med 2004;255:89–95.

van Dam RM, Dekker JM, Nijpels G, Stehouwer CDA, Bouter LM, Heine RJ. Coffee consumption and incidence of impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, and type 2 diabetes: the Hoorn Study. Diabetologia 2004;47:2151–9.

Carlsson S, Hammar N, Grill V, Kaprio J. Coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in Finnish twins. Int J Epidemiol 2004;33:616–7.

van Dam RM, Hu FB. Coffee Consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review. JAMA 2005;294:97–104.

Greenberg JA, Axen KV, Schnoll R, Boozer CN. Coffee, tea and diabetes: the role of weight loss and caffeine. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2005;29:1121–9.

Isogawa A, Noda M, Takahashi Y, Kadowaki T, Tsugane S. Coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Lancet 2003;361:703–4.

Arnlov J, Vessby B. Coffee consumption and insulin sensitivity. JAMA 2004;291:1199–201.

Agardh EE, Carlsson S, Ahlbom A, et al. Coffee consumption, type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance in Swedish men and women. J Intern Med 2004;255:645–52.

Soriguer F, Rojo-Martinez G, Esteva de Antonio I. Coffee consumption and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Ann Intern Med 2004;141:321–2 (letter).

Yamaji T, Mizoue T, Tabata S, et al. Coffee consumption and glucose tolerance status in middle-aged Japanese men. Diabetologia 2004;47:2145–51.

Wu T, Willett WC, Hankinson SE, Giovannucci E. Caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and caffeine in relation to plasma C-peptide levels, a marker of insulin secretion, in U.S. women. Diabetes Care 2005;28:1390–6.

Faerch K, Lau C, Tetens I, et al. A statistical approach based on substitution of macronutrients provides additional information to models analyzing single dietary factors in relation to type 2 diabetes in Danish adults: the Inter99 study. J Nutr 2005;135:1177–82.

Bidel S, Hu G, Sundvall J, Kaprio J, Tuomilehto J. Effects of coffee consumption on glucose tolerance, serum glucose and insulin levels—a cross-sectional analysis. Horm Metab Res 2006;38:38–43

Saremi A, Tulloch-Reid M, Knowler WC. Coffee consumption and the incidence of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2003;26:2211–2.

Reunanen A, Heliovaara M, Aho K. Coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Lancet 2003;36:702–3.

Mackenzie T, Brooks B, O'Connor G. Beverage intake, diabetes, and glucose control of adults in America. Ann Epidemiol 2006 Jan 31; Epub ahead of print.

Harris MI, Flegal KM, Cowie CC, et al. Prevalence of diabetes, impaired fasting glucose, and impaired glucose tolerance in U.S. adults. The third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994. Diabetes Care 1998;21:475–6.

King H, Aubert R, Herman W. Global burden of diabetes, 1995–2025. Prevalence, numerical estimates and projections. Diabetes Care 1998;21:1414–31.

Spiller MA. The chemical components of coffee. In: Spiller GA, ed. Caffeine. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1998:97–161.

Lopez-Garcia E, van Dam RM, Rajpathak S, Willett WC, Manson JE, Hu FB. Changes in caffeine intake and long-term weight change in men and women. Am J Clin Nutr 2006;83:674–80.

Zheng G, Sayam K, Okubo T, Juneja LR, Oguni I. Anti-obesity effects of three major components of green tea, catechins, caffeine and theanine, in mice. In Vivo 2004;18:55–62.

Cheung WT, Lee CM, Ng TB. Potentiation of the antioipolytic effect of 2-chloroadenosine after chronic caffeine treatment. Pharmacology 1988;36:331–9.

Muroyama K, Murosaki S, Yamamoto Y, Odaka H, Chung HC, Miyoshi M. Anti-obesity effects of a mixture of thiamin, arginine, caffeine, and citric acid in non-insulin dependent diabetic KK mice. Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 2003;49:56–63.

Choi SB, Park CH, Park S. Effect of cola intake on insulin resistance in moderate fat-fed weaning male rats, J Nutr Biochem 2002;13:727–33.

Han LK, Takaku T, Li J, Kimura Y, Okuda H. Anti-obesity action of oolong tea. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1999;23:98–105.

Bukowiecki LJ, Lupien J, Follea N, Jahjah L. Effects of sucrose, caffeine and cola beverages on obesity, cold resistance, and adipose tissue cellularity. Am J Physiol 1983;244:R500–7.

Astrup A, Breum L, Toubro S, Hein P, Quaade F. The effect and safety of an ephedrine/caffeine compound compared to ephedrine, caffeine and placebo in obese subjects on an energy restricted diet. A double blind trial. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1992;16:269–77.

Kovacs EMR, Lejeune MPGM, Nijs I, Westerterp-Plantenga MS. Effects of green tea on weight maintenance after body-weight loss. Br J Nutr 2004;91:431–7.

Norris SL, Zhang X, Avenell A, Gregg E, Schmid CH, Lau J. Long-term non-pharmacological weight loss interventions for adults with prediabetes. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005;(2):CD005270.

Dulloo A, Geissler C, Horton T, Miller D. Normal cafeine consumption: influence on thermogenesis and daily energy expenditure in lean and postobese human volunteers. Am J Clin Nutr 1989;49:44–50.

Jung RT, Shetty PS, James WPT, Barrand MA, Callingham BA. Caffeine: its effects on catecholamines and metabolism in lean and obese subjects. Clin Sci 1981;60:527–35.

Astrup A, Toubro S, Cannon S, Hein P, Breum L, Madsen J. Caffeine: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of its thermogenic, metabolic, and cardiovascular effects in healthy volunteers. Am J Clin Nutr 1990;51:759–67.

Haldi J, Bachmann G, Ensor C, Wynn W. The effects of various amounts of caffeine on the gaseous exchange and the respiratory quotient in man. J Nutr 1941;21:307–12.

Horst K, Willson RJ, Smith RG. The effect of coffee and decaffeinated coffee on oxygen consumption, pulse rate and blood pressure. J Pharmacol. Exp Therap 1936;58:294–304.

Hollands M, Cawthorne MA. A simple apparatus for comparative measurements of energy expenditure in human subjects: the thermic effect of caffeine. Am J Clin Nutr 1981;34:2291–4.

Acheson KJ, Zahorska-Markiewicz B, Anantharaman K, Jequier E. Caffeine and coffee: their influence on metabolic rate and substrate utilization in normal weight and obese individuals. Am J Clin Nutr 1980;33:989–97.

Graham TE. Caffeine and exercise: metabolism, endurance and performance. Sports Med 2001;31:785–807.

Bracco D, Ferrarra JM, Arnaud MJ, Jequier E, Schutz Y. Effects of caffeine on energy metabolism, heart rate, and methylxanthine metabolism in lean and obese women. Am J Physiol 1995;269:E671–8.

Costill DL, Dalsky GP, Fink WJ. Effects of caffeine ingestion on metabolism and exercise performance. Med Sci Sports 1978;10:155–8.

Ryu S, Choi SK, Joung SS, Suh H, Cha YS, Lee S, Lim K. Caffeine as a lipolytic food component increases endurance performance in rats and athletes. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 2001;47:139–46.

Dulloo AG, Duret C, Rohrer D, et al. Efficacy of a green tea extract rich in catechin polyphenols and caffeine in increasing 24-hr energy expenditure and fat oxidation in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;70:1040–5.
Arciero PJ, Gardner AW, Calles-Escandon J, Benowitz NL, Poehlman ET. Effects of caffeine ingestion on NE kinetics, fat oxidation, and energy expenditure in younger and older men. Am J Physiol 1995;268(6 Pt 1):E1192–8.

Jungas RL, Ball EG. Studies on the metabolism of adipose tissue. XII. The effects of insulin and epinephrine on free fatty acid and glycerol production in the presence and absence of glucose. Biochemistry 1963;2:383–8.

Daubresse J-C, Luyckx A, Demey-Ponsart E, Franchimont R, Lefebvre P. Effects of coffee and caffeine on carbohydrate metabolism, free fatty acid, insulin, growth hormone and cortisol plasma levels in man. Acta Diabetol Lat 1973;10:1069–84.

Keijzers GB, De Galan BE. Caffeine can decrease insulin sensitivity in humans. Diabetes Care 2002;25:364–9.

Thong FS, Graham TE. Caffeine-induced impairment of glucose tolerance is abolished by beta-adrenergic receptor blockade in humans, J Appl Physiol 2002;92:2347–52.

Bellet S, Kershbaum A, Finck EM. Response of free fatty acids to coffee and caffeine. Metabolism 1968;17:702–7.

Avogaro P, Capri C, Pais M, Cazzolato G. Plasma and urine cortisol behaviour and fat mobilization in man after coffee ingestion. Israel J Med Sci 1973;9:114–9.

Sawynok J, Yaksh TL. Caffeine as an analgesic adjuvant: a review of pharmacology and mechanisms of action. Pharmacol Rev 1993;45:43–85.

Whitsett TL, Manion CV, Christensen HD. Cardiovascular effects of coffee and caffeine. Am J Cardiol 1984;53:918–22.

Fredholm BB, Battig K, Holmen J, Nehlig A, Zvartau EE. Actions of caffeine in the brain with special reference to factors that contribute to its widespread use. Pharmacol Rev 1999;51:83–133.

Daly JW, Fredholm BB. Mechanisms of action of caffeine on the nervous system. In: Nehlig A, ed. Coffee, tea, chocolate and the brain. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2004:1–12.

Daly JW. Mechanism of action of caffeine. In: Garattini S, ed. Caffeine, coffee and health. New York, NY: Raven Press, Ltd, 1993:97–150.

Reppert SM, Weaver DR, Stehle JH, Rivkees SA. Molecular cloning and characterization of a rat A1-adenosine receptor that is widely expressed in brain and spinal cord. Mol Endocrinol 1991;5:1037–48.

Dixon AK, Gubitz AK, Sirinathsinghji DJ, Richardson PJ, Freeman TC. Tissue distribution of adenosine receptor mRNAs in the rat. Br J Pharmacol 1996;118:1461–8.

Robertson D, Wade D, Workman R, Woosley RL, Oates JA. Tolerance to the humoral and hemodynamc effect of caffeine in man. J Clin Invest 1981;67:1111–7.

Benowitz NL, Jacob P III, Mayan H, Denaro C. Sympathomimetic effects of paraxanthine and caffeine in humans. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1995;58:684–91.

Fredholm BB. Effects of adenosine, adenosine analogues and drugs inhibiting adenosine inactivation of lipolysis in rat fat cells. Acta Physiol Scand 1978;102:191–8.

Rebuffe-Scrive M, Anderson B, Olbe L, Bjorntorp P. Metabolism of adipose tissue in intraabdominal depots in severly obese men and women. Metabolism 1990;39:1021–5.

Strubelt O. The influence of reserpin, propranolol and adrenal medullectomy on the hyperglycaemic actions of theophylline and caffeine. Arch Int Pharmacodynam 1969;179:215–24.

Levine JA, Lanningham-Foster LM, McCrady SK, et al. Interindividual variation in posture allocation: possible role in human obesity. Science 2005;307:584–6.

Lane JD, Surwit RS, Barkauskas CE, Feinglos MN. Caffeine impairs glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2004;27:2047–8.

Greer F, Hudson R, Ross R, Graham T. Caffeine ingestion decreases glucose disposal during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp in sedentary humans. Diabetes 2001;50:2349–54.

Petrie HJ, Chown SE, Belfie LM, et al. Caffeine ingestion increases the insulin response to an oral-glucose-tolerance test in obese men before and after weight loss. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80:22–8.

Robinson LE, Savani S, Battram DS, McLaren DH, Sathasivam P, Graham TE. Caffeine ingestion before andoral glucose tolerance test impairs blood glucose management in men with type 2 diabetes. J Nutr 2004;134:2528–33.

Pizziol A, Tikhonoff V, Paleari CD, et al. Effects of caffeine on glucose tolerance: a placebo-controlled study. Eur J Clin Nutr 1998;52:846–9.

Battram DS, Arthur R, Weekes A, Graham T. The glucose intolerance induced by caffeinated coffee ingestion is less pronounced than that due to alkaloid caffeine in men. J Nutr 2006;136:1276–80.

Johnston KL, Clifford MN, Morgan LM. Coffee acutely modifies gastrointestinal hormone secretion and glucose tolerance in humans: glycemic effects of chlorogenic acid and caffeine. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;78:728–33.

Wachmann A, Hattner RS, George B, Bernstein DS. Effects of decaffeinated and nondecaffeinated coffee ingestion on blood glucose and plasma radioimmuno-reactive insulin responses to rapid intravenous infusion of glucose in normal man. Metabolism 1970;19:539–46.

Jankelson OM, Beaser SB, Howard RM, Maher J. Effect of coffee on glucose tolerance and circulating insulin in men with maturity-onset diabetes. Lancet 1967;1:527–9.

Naismith DJ, Akinayanju PA, Szanto S, Yudkin J. The effect in volunteers of coffee and decaffeinated coffee on blood glucose, insulin, plasma lipids and some factors involved in blood clotting. Nutr Metabol 1970;12:144–51.

van Dam RM, Pasman WJ, Verhoef P. Effects of coffee consumption on fasting blood glucose and insulin concentrations: randomized controlled trials in healthy volunteers. Diabetes Care 2004;27:2990–2.

Pencek RR, Battram D, Shearer J, et al. Portal vein caffeine infusion enhances net hepatic glucose uptake during a glucose load in conscious dogs. J Nutr 2004;134:3042–6.

Thong FS, Derave W, Kiens B, et al. Caffeine-induced impairment of insulin action but not insulin signaling in human skeletal muscle is reduced by exercise. Diabetes 2002;51:583–90.

Wynne K, Stanley S, Bloom S. The gut and regulation of body weight. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004;89:2576–82.

Avogaro A, Toffolo G, Valerio A, Cobelli C. Epinephrine exerts opposite effects on peripheral glucose disposal and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Diabetes 1996;45:1373–8.

Laaskso M, Edelman SV, Brechtel B, Baron AD. Effects of epinephrine on insulin-mediated glucose uptake in whole body and leg muscle in humans: role of blood flow. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 1992;263:E199–204.

Van Soeren M, Mohr T, Kjaer M, Graham TE. Acute effects of caffeine ingestion at rest in humans with impaired epinephrine responses. J Appl Physiol 1996;80:999–1005.

Shi CL. The effects of caffeine and acetylcholine on glucose-stimulated insulin release from islet transplants in mice. Cell Transplant 1997;6:33–7.

Bruton JD, Lemmens R, Shi C, et al. Ryanodine receptors of pancreatic beta-cells mediate a distinct context-dependent signal for insulin secretion. FASEB J 2003;17:301–3. Epub 2002 Dec 3.

Westerterp-Plantenga MS, Lejeune MPGM, Kovacs EMR. Body weight loss and weight maintenance in relation to habitual caffeine intake and green tea supplementation. Obes Res 2005;13:1195–204.

Robertson D, Forlich JC, Carr RK, et al. Effects of caffeine on plasma renin activity, catecholamines and blood pressure. N Engl J Med 1978;298:181–6.

Casiglia E, Bongiovi S, Paleari CD, et al. Haemodynamic effects of coffee and caffeine in normal volunteers: a placebo-controlled clinical study. J Intern Med 1991;229:501–4.

Christensen B, Mosdol A, Retterstol L, Landaas S, Thelle DS. Abstention from filtered coffee reduces the concentrations of plasma homocysteine and serum cholesterol—a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2001;74:302–7.

Izzo JL, Ghosal A, Kwong T, et al. Age and prior caffeine use alter the cardiovascular and adrenomedullary responses to oral caffeine. Am J Cardiol 1983;52:769–73.

Onrot J, Goldberg MR, Biaggioni I, Hollister AS, Kincaid D, Robertson D. Hemodynamic and humoral effects of caffeine in autonomic failure: therapeutic implications for postprandial hypotension. N Engl J Med 1985;313:549–54.

Lenders JWM, Morrie HLC, Smits P, Thien T. The effects of caffeine on the postprandial fall of blood pressure in the elderly. Age Ageing 1988;17:236–40.

Lipsitz LA, Hansen RWMM, Connelly CM, Kelly-Gagnon MM, Parker AJ. Haemodynamic and neurohumoral effects of caffeine in elderly patients with symptomatic postprandial hypotension: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Clin Sci 1994;87:259–67.

Del Rio G, Menozzi R, Zizzo G, et al. Increased cardiovascular response to caffeine in perimenopausal women before and during estrogen therapy. Eur J Endocrinol 1996;135:598–603.
Heseltine D, El-Jabri M, Ahmed F, Knox J. The effect of caffeine on postprandial blood pressure in the frail elderly. Postgrad Med J 1991;67:543–7.

Noordzij M, Uiterwaal CS, Arends LR, Kok FJ, Grobbee DE, Geleijnse JM. Blood pressure response to chronic intake of coffee and caffeine: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Hypertens 2005;23:921–8.

James JE. Is habitual coffeine use a preventable cardiovascular risk factor? Lancet 1997;349:279–81.

Shi J, Benowitz NI, Denaro CP, Sheiner LB. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodymanic modeling of caffeine: tolerance to pressor effects. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1993;53:6–14.

Garattini S. Overview. In: Garattini S, ed. Caffeine, coffee and health. New York, NY: Raven Press, Ltd, 1993:399–403.

Health Canada Food Program. Fact sheet—it's your health: caffeine. Ottawa, Canada: Health Canada, 2006.

Viani R. The composition of coffee. In: Garattini S, ed. Caffeine, coffee and health. New York, NY: Raven Press, Ltd, 1993:17–41.

Christian MS, Brent RL. Teratogen update: evaluation of the reproductive and developmental risks of caffeine. Teratology 2001;64:51–78.

Browne ML. Maternal exposure to caffeine and risk of congenital anomalies: a systematic review. Epidemiology 2006;17:324–31.

Nehlig A, Debry G. Potential teratogenic and neurodevelopmental consequences of coffee and caffeine exposure: a review on human and animal data. Neurotoxicol Teratol 1994;16:531–43.

Etherton GM, Kochar MS. Coffee. Facts and controversies. Arch Fam Med 1993;2:317–22.

Narod SA, De Sanjose S, Victora C. Coffee during pregnancy: a reproductive hazard? Am J Obstet Gynecol 1991;164:1109–14.

Smith BD, Tola K. Caffeine: effects on psychological functioning and Performance. In: Spiller GA, ed. Caffeine. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1998:278–9.

Massey LK. Caffeine and the elderly. Drugs Aging 1998;13:43–50.

Curhan GC, Willett WC, Speizer FE, Stampfer MJ. Beverage use and risk for kidney stones in women. Ann Intern Med 1998;128:534–40.

Rapuri PB, Gallagher JC, Kinyamu HK, Ryschon KL. Caffeine intake increases the rate of bone loss in elderly women and interacts with vitamin D receptor genotypes. Am J Clin Nutr 2001;74:694–700.

Hasling C, Sondergaard K, Charles P, Mosekilde L. Calcium metabolism in postmenopausal osteoporotic women is determined by dietary calcium and coffee intake. J Nutr 1992;122:1119–26.

Harris SS, Dawson-Hughes B. Caffeine and bone loss in healthy postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 1994;60:573–8.

Chown S. Caffeine increases the insulin/glucose response to an OGTT in obese and lean males. Doctoral dissertation. University of Guelph, Guelph, Canada, 2001.

de Galan BE, Tack CJ, Lenders JW, et al. Theophylline improves hypoglycemia unawareness in type 1 diabetes. Diabetes 2002;51:790–6.

James JE. Caffeine and cardiovascular health. In: Understanding caffeine: a biobehavioral analysis. London, United Kingdom: Sage Publication, 1997:80–102.

James JE. Caffeine and cancer. In: Understanding caffeine: a behavioral analysis. London, United Kingdom: Sage Publications, 1997:103–15.

Schwartzschild MA, Ascherio A. Caffeine and Parkinson's disease. In: Nehlig A, ed. Coffee, tea, chocolate, and the brain. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2004:147–59.

Graham TE, Hibbert E, Sathasivam P. Metabolic and exercise endurance effects of coffee and caffeine ingestion. J Appl Physiol 1998;85:883–9.

Tse SYH. Cholinomimetic compound: distinct from caffeine contained in coffee. II: muscarinic actions. J Pharm Sci 1992;81:449–52.

Nieuwenhoven MA, Brummer RJM, Brouns F. Gastrointestinal function during exercise: comparison of water, sports drink and sports drink with caffeine. J Appl Physiol 2000;89:1079–85.

Rodriguez de Sotillo DV, Hadley M. Chlorogenic acid modifies plasma and liver concentrations of: cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and minerals in (fa/fa) Zucker rats. J Nutr Biochem 2002;13:717–26.

Clifford MN. Chlorogenic acid and other cinnamates—nature, occurrence, dietary burden, absorption and metabolism. J Sci Food Agric 2000;80:1033–43.

Arion WJ, Canfield WK, Ramos FC, et al. Chlorogenic acid and hydroxynitrobenzaldehyde: new inhibitors of hepatic glucose 6-phosphatase. Arch Biochem Biophys 1997;339:315–22.

McCarty MF. A chlorogenic acid-induced increase in GLP-1 production may mediate the impact of heavy coffee consumption on diabetes risk. Med Hypoth 2004;64:848–53.

Shearer J, Farah A, de Paulis R, et al. Quinides of roasted coffee enhance insulin action in conscious rats. J Nutr 2003;133:3529–32.

Natella R, Nardini M, Giannetti I, Dattile C, Scaccini C. Coffee drinking influences plasma antioxidant capacity in humans. J Agric Food Chem 2002;50:6211–6.

Svilaas A, Sakhi AK, Andersen LF, et al. Intakes of antioxidants in coffee, wine, and vegetables are correlated with plasma carotenoids in humans. J Nutr 2004;134:562–7.









Copyright © 2014 Skinny Science® Coffee™